Social and psychological positions of interethic tolerance
The article is dedicated to making clear the role of social and psychological conditions of forming and functioning of interethnic tolerance in different social environments. The attention is drawn to close interaction of these two aspects on the stage of the formation and in the process of manifestations of interethnic tolerance. The significance of ethnosocial, ethnocultural and ethnosycological contexts in which this phenomenon is functioning is a topic of this research. Besides, the disposition index of different ethnicities on the interaction, the integral index of national (ethnic) distance for ten ethnic groups (Americans, Belarusians, Georgians, Jews, Crimean Tatars, Germans, Poles, Romanians, Hungarians, Gypsies) are examined in this research. The Emory S. Bogardussocial distance scale for the empirical measurement of people readiness (wish) to take part in any type of social intimacy contacts with members of different social groups, particularly with racial and ethnic groups, another scales and methods of measurement of the interethnic tolerance level are described in the article. Both domestic and foreign last scientists’ research analyses of the interethnic tolerance phenomenon are made. The ethnofore positioning factors in the ethnic interaction of poly ethnic Ukrainian society are also described. The ethnic identity which can be changed under the influence of social and psychological environment, getting positive or negative qualities is mentioned in the article. It can make cross-cultural and interethnic misunderstandings, ethnic interaction complications. That’s why thorough insight into this process and understanding of these changes dynamics, which ethnofore have in their mind is a foundation of their elimination from the ways of this interaction among all population.