Theoretical and methodical development bases of learners technical abilities by means of graphic tasks
In the article the bases of development of technical abilities of learners by means of graphic tasks are analyzed. Abilities are considered as individual psychological peculiarities associated with natural prerequisites that determine the success of the activity. In this case, abilities are based on the peculiarity of mental processes, caused by the corresponding psychophysiological functions of the individual. Technical abilities are closely related to the interests and inclinations of technical activity: they induce a person to become knowledgeable and active in the field of technology, and the technical activity, for its part, activates the appropriate impulses which, in the process of development, become capable. The tendency to technical activity is ensured by the presence of a person’s certain qualities of personality, namely: active positive attitude towards technology, deep interest in it; manifestation of such features as diligence, purposefulness, organization, persistence, ability to overcome obstacles on the way to achieving the goal; experience during training of the technical activity of a favorable mental condition (concentration, confidence and creative inspiration, a new feeling); availability of certain knowledge and skills of technical direction; the development of individual psychic features in the sensory, mental and motor spheres that meet the requirements of technical activity. The success of the development of technical abilities to a large extent depends on the cognitive and practical independence of learners in the field of technology in solving graphic tasks. It is necessary to determine the graphical component as a separate essential property of technical abilities. The presence of a person’s graphic knowledge and abilities is an important prerequisite for use in the scientific, technical and production activities of a universal means of information transfer – graphic documents in the form of drawings, sketches, schemes.