ГЕНДЕРНІ ОСОБЛИВОСТІ КОПІНГ-ПОВЕДІНКИ ЧОЛОВІКІВ ТА ЖІНОК
The article analyzes the phenomenon of coping in modern psychological science. It is noted that coping or «coping-behavior», which are considered as synonymous, is carried out on the basis of coping-resources with the help of coping strategies. The results of their own empirical study of the frequency of choosing coping strategies by men and women are presented. It is noted that in studying the differences in the choice of ways to overcome stress between women and men, it is necessary to consider both biological and socio-cultural factors. It is noted that the choice of an individual of certain coping strategies is a rather stable characteristic throughout life, independent of the type of stressor. Typically, 3 basic copying strategies are identified: problem solving, social support search, problem avoidance. It is emphasized that women are oriented not so much on the psychological overcoming of a difficult life situation, but on adapting to it. Men's coping strategies are based on independent and active actions, emotional sustainability and self-efficacy, which characterize problem-focused strategies to overcome difficulties. It is analyzed that problem-oriented coping negatively correlates with the feminine type of gender identity. However, feminine women are more likely to be characterized by emotional-oriented coping, and especially coping, focused on avoiding the problem, one of the parties which has a tendency to seek social support. Representatives of masculine and androgynous types of gender identity prefer to overcome the problem-solving. It is noted that the coping strategy of «problem solving» has appeared to be dominant in the majority of investigated men who in stressful situations try to use all available personal resources for them to find possible ways of effective solution of the problem. Instead, women in case of difficult life situations seek to find emotional and instrumental support in their immediate social environment, which characterizes one of the basic coping strategies – «search for social support».
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