On epistemology and practical reason of university-entrepreneurship research and development cooperation
The article is devoted to the study of epistemological foundations and practical aspects of the cooperation of university researchers with small innovative firms on the issues of implementation, technological and commercial mastering of research and development results.
It is shown that in the case of transfer between subjects of knowledge that are considered as justified true belief, there is an epistemological gap, since the justified human belief, despite the intersubjective origin, has a unique context of personal consciousness. At the same time, in the process of trying to transfer the subject of knowledge, justified belief is not transmitted entirely to the material carriers of voice, text, etc., since it can have a significant amount of both explicit and partially hidden links. In our opinion, this creates a certain epistemological gap between knowledge in the mind of the subject-author and his material reflection beyond consciousness. This gap in communications is complemented by the fact that a subject who perceives a voice or an author's text does not directly perceive justification, but is formed in his own context. In the study of practice this gap is often ignored. However, in our opinion, its consideration is essential for the transfer of research and development results, especially between communities with different backgrounds and activities.
The article notes that the technical, technological and practical «knowledge-how» is somewhat different in the aspects of justified belief from the propositional scientific "knowledge-that", and also in its measurements not only truth, but also usefulness. It should also be borne in mind that knowledge-as is created by researchers at the university as incomplete, because it needs to be finalized in a concrete context. In the case of the transfer of knowledge-how there is an epistemological gap of a slightly different nature, which needs clarification in further research..
Three approaches are considered for cooperation between research groups of the university and small firms. Among them, the traditional transfer of research and development results, the creation of firms based on research groups. Particular attention is paid to the third approach, in which university researchers work in the company in the process of implementation, technological and commercial development and complement their own knowledge for the creation of goods and services. It is shown that the use of researchers' work in firms to some extent deprives the epistemological gaps of innovation process, but may have complications due to insufficient experience and competence of researchers in entrepreneurial activity. The latter largely concerns the approach by which research groups of universities turn into innovative firms.
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