Ethnic relations in ideological structures of modern populiism
The article deals with the problem of functioning of populism as a political ideology. It is in this manifestation that populism most often manifests its disadvantages. As ideology, in its classical form, it is not capable of formulating clear goals, sequential programs and real practical measures to solve urgent socio-political tasks. In general, populism in its ideological constructions uses situationally in various variational combinations separate provisions of classical ideologies – liberalism, conservatism, socialism, etc. The current populism in countries with different levels of development of democracy is often referred to national, ethnic and other issues related to political and cultural identification of citizens in the context of globalization. Populism uses certain ethnonational contradictions to mobilize disillusioned with the policies of the ruling elite by offering their own, sometimes radical, means of resolving existing conflicts.
One of the key elements of populism today is the nationalism and rhetoric about the return of lost sovereignty to appeal not so much to history as nostalgia for the idealized past. The upgrading of ethnic and national issues is the easiest and win-win version of the populist strategy. The people in the rhetoric of populists are always proclaimed the bearer of genuine national values, and the elite is accused of cosmopolitanism, betrayal of national interests, isolation from national roots. Populist politicians speculate on specific themes of identity, xenophobia and racism. Right populist parties in Europe can be called «parties of identity». They oppose the transnational pro-American political elite of their states that are destroying traditional national values, including the promotion of immigration from non-European countries. In their opinion, mass immigration will lead to the impossibility of protecting their interests in the international arena. Only stable elements of the democratic political culture of society can prevent the destruction of the mechanisms of the functioning of institutions of liberal democracy.
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