Influence of personal freedom on the formation of the Ukrainian society

  • Irina Ivannikova 3rd year student of specialty «Political Science», Social History Faculty, of the State Higher Educational Institution «Pereiaslav-Khmelnytsky Hryhorii Skovoroda State Pedagogical University».
Keywords: freedom, «escape from liberty», the Orange Revolution, the Revolution of Dignity, personality, ukrainian society, a new level of «escape from liberty».


In this scientific article the influence of freedom on the formation of modern Ukrainian society is considered. The meaning of the concept of «freedom», its manifestations in society and the individual is analyzed. A new level of «escape from freedom» is revealed and justified by analyzing the historical experience of such States as Ukraine and the Russian Federation. Among the famous scientists and researchers, attention was paid to such as Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Spinoza, Ivan Pavlov, etc. In particular, an important contribution was the views of the outstanding German philosopher and psychoanalyst Erich Fromm and his work «Escape from freedom», which became the Foundation for this scientific article. He identified three typical mechanisms of «escape from freedom» typical for modern society: authoritarianism, destructiveness, conformism. Under authoritarianism E. Fromm understood complex sadomasochistic relations of different social scale. Such sadomasochistic relations Express the tendency to renounce the independence of one's personality and the desire to merge one's «self» with someone or something external in order to gain the strength that the individual himself lacks. In other words, the individual is looking for new, «secondary» ties instead of the lost primary ones.

The destructiveness (destructiveness) by E. Fromm to be distinguished from the sadomasochistic longings, although they are mostly correlated. Destructiveness is characterized by the fact that its purpose is not active or passive symbiosis, but destruction, elimination of the object. Although destructiveness is based on the same powerlessness and isolation of the individual, here the deliverance from the feeling of powerlessness towards the surrounding world is achieved by the destruction of this world. If sadism tends to strengthen the lone individual at the expense of its domination over the other, the destructiveness – at the expense of the elimination of any external threat. Of course, in case of complete triumph, the destroyer will be completely alone, but it will be a «brilliant» loneliness, in which he will not be threatened by any external forces. In addition to authoritarianism and destructiveness, a person can try to get rid of loneliness and alienation by absolute subordination to social norms, becoming exactly the same as everyone else. E. Fromm believed that such a loss of individuality by conformism rooted in the social nature of most modern people. «Escape from Freedom» in Russia is now a permanent, fixed in the days of the Soviet Union and transformed over time in connection with the emergence of new media and means of propaganda. In Ukraine, on the one hand, one can observe the rise of freedom as a value as a result of revolutions, and on the other – a new level of «escape from freedom», which can be fixed for many years.


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How to Cite
Ivannikova, I. (2019). Influence of personal freedom on the formation of the Ukrainian society. HUMANITARIUM, 41(3), 27-35. Retrieved from